MORE EVIDENCE THAT BLACKS WERE IN THE AMERICAS LONG BEFORE COLUMBUS AND HIS "BOYS" SET SAIL TO INTRODUCE CORRUPTION TO THE ALREADY DISCOVERED NEW WORLD. SINCE BLACKS OR PEOPLE OF COLOR HAD LITTLE OR NO CONTROL OVER THE WAY IN WHICH HISTORY BOOKS DEPICTED THE TRUTH AND FACTS SURROUNDING THE EMERGENCE OF BLACK PEOPLE TO THE AMERICAS, HOW CAN THESE BOOKS BE TRUSTED TO REVEAL THE 'TRUTH'??! BLACK PEOPLE DID NOT FIRST COME TO THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE AS SLAVES, BUT AS SEA MERCHANTS OFF THE COAST OF AFRICA PRIMARILY INTO SOUTH AMERICA AREAS.
It is likely that African merchants and explorers sailed across the Atlantic Ocean as early as 800 B.C. These ancient travelers interacted with the indigenous peoples of the ancient Americas and left monuments and other traces of their presence for future generations to discover and interpret. Recent scholarship documents the presence of African peoples in the Western Hemisphere long before Columbus and the Atlantic Slave Trade. Evidence of this presence includes writing and counting systems, botanical and skeletal remains, calendars, architectural structures, symbols, artifacts, linguistic networks, and a mythopoetic legacy. All of this evidence bears a striking resemblance to the practices and institutions of sub-Sahara African tradition as well as to the traditions of the great empires of pre-Columbian America. The dramatic colossal heads at La Venta and other sites in Mexico, which were created by the Olmec Empire, are an excellent example of this phenomenon. There is also evidence that suggests Malian traders traveled on an expedition to the Americas with Emperor Bubakar II in the fourteenth century. In addition, during the period of colonial expansion, numerous Africans who were not enslaved came to the Americas. Africans accompanied many European explorers and conquistadores, intermarried with Native Americans, and settled throughout the hemisphere.
1. Sylvia Wynter, "1492: A New World View," from a paper presented at the Schomburg Center Summer Teacher Institute, July, 1991.
2. Ivan Van Sertima, They Came Before Columbus (New York: Random House, 1976).
3. Carter G. Woodson, The Mis-education of the Negro (Washington, D.C.: The Associated Publishers, 1933).http://www.si.umich.edu/CHICO/Schomburg/text/ap_context.html
Following is historical accounts of the vessels used by ancient black Africans who sailed to the western hemisphere, long before slavery.
Migration to America
These Proto-Saharans came to Mexico in papyrus boats. A stone stela from Izapa,Chiapas in southern Mexico show the boats these Proto-Saharans used to sail to America. The voyagers manning these boats probably sailed down TAFASSASSET, to Lake Chad and thence down the Lower ***** River which emptied into the Atlantic. This provided the Mande a river route from the Sahara to the coast . These rivers, long dried up, once emptied into the Atlantic. Once in the Atlantic Ocean to Mexico and Brazil, by the North Equatorial Current which meets the Canaries Current off the Senegambian coast.
There are oral traditions and documentary evidence which support the early migration of the Mande people to Mexico, called the Olmecs by the Amerindians. The Olmecs probably called themselves Xi or Shi people.
Friar Diego de Landa, in "Yucatan before and After the Conquest", wrote that "some old men of Yucatan say that they heard from their ancestors that this country was peopled by a certain race who came from the East, whom God delivered by opening for them twelve roads through the sea".
This oral tradition of the Maya is supported by Stela 5, of Izapa. In Stela No. 5, we view a group of men on a boat riding the waves of an Ocean.At the right hand side of the boat we see a personage under a ceremonial umbrella. This umbrella was a symbol of princely status. Above his head is a jaguar glyph which according to Dr. Alexander von Wuthenau indicates that he was an Olmec. This personage has an African hairdo and a writing stylus in his left hand. This Olmec scribe proves that the Olmec had writing which was deciphered by Clyde Ahmad Winters in 1978.(Winters 1979;Wuthenau 1981)
In the center of the boat we find a large tree. This tree has seven branches and twelve roots. The seven branches probably indicates the seven major clans that form ed the Olmec nation. The twelve roots of the tree which extend into the waves of the ocean from the boat, probably signifies the "twelve roads through the sea" mentioned by Friar Diego de Landa.
Stela No.5, also illustrates the two principal Olmec cults. On the right hand side of the stela, we see the Jaguar Prince instructing a youth in the mysteries of the Jaguar cult. On the left hand side we see a number of birds.Here we also find a priest wearing a conical hat,also instructing a youth in the mysteries of the bird cult. It is clear that Stela No.5 from Izapa not only indicates the tree of life, it speaks to the origin of the Olmec from a nation across the sea. And that the Olmec people came to the New World during twelve migrations, as recorded by Friar de Landa.
In the Popol Vuh, the famous Mayan historian Ixtlixochtl, the Olmecs came to Mexico in "ships of barks"( probably a reference to papyrus boats or dug-out canoes used by the Proto-Saharans) and landed in Potonchan,which they commenced to populate.Mexican traditions claim that these migrates from the east were led by Amoxaque or Bookmen. The term Amoxaque, is similar to the Manding 'a ma n'kye':"he (is) a teacher". These Blacks are frequently seen in Mayan writings as gods or merchants. http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/8919/olmec2.htm
BLACK CIVILIZATIONS OF
ANCIENT AMERICA (MUU-LAN),
Gigantic stone head of Negritic African
during the Olmec (Xi) Civilization
By Paul Barton
The earliest people in the Americas were people of the Negritic African race, who entered the Americas perhaps as early as 100,000 years ago, by way of the bering straight and about thirty thousand years ago in a worldwide maritime undertaking that included journeys from the then wet and lake filled Sahara towards the Indian Ocean and the Pacific, and from West Africa across the Atlantic Ocean towards the Americas.
According to the Gladwin Thesis, this ancient journey occurred, particularly about 75,000 years ago and included Black Pygmies, Black Negritic peoples and Black Australoids similar to the Aboriginal Black people of Australia and parts of Asia, including India.
Ancient African terracotta portraits 1000 B.C. to 500 B.C.
Recent discoveries in the field of linguistics and other methods have shown without a doubt, that the ancient Olmecs of Mexico, known as the Xi People, came originally from West Africa and were of the Mende African ethnic stock. According to Clyde A. Winters and other writers (see Clyde A. Winters website), the Mende script was discovered on some of the ancient Olmec monuments of Mexico and were found to be identical to the very same script used by the Mende people of West Africa. Although the carbon fourteen testing date for the presence of the Black Olmecs or Xi People is about 1500 B.C., journies to the Mexico and the Southern United States may have come from West Africa much earlier, particularly around five thousand years before Christ. That conclusion is based on the finding of an African native cotton that was discovered in North America. It's only possible manner of arriving where it was found had to have been through human hands. At that period in West African history and even before, civilization was in full bloom in the Western Sahara in what is today Mauritania. One of Africa's earliest civilizations, the Zingh Empire, existed and may have lived in what was a lake filled, wet and fertile Sahara, where ships criss-crossed from place to place.